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 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267  \section{\label{ref:Rockboxinflash}Rockbox in flash} \warn{Flashing Rockbox is optional. It is not required for using Rockbox on your \playername. Please read the whole section thoroughly before flashing. } \subsection{Introduction} Flashing in the sense used here and elsewhere in regard to Rockbox means reprogramming the flash memory of the \playerman\ unit. When you bought your \playerman, it came with the \playerman\ firmware flashed. Now, you can add Rockbox to the built-in software. \subsection{Terminology} \begin{description} \item[Firmware: ] The flash ROM content as a whole. \item[Image: ] Means one operating software started from there \end{description} By reprogramming the firmware, we can boot much faster. \playerman\ has an unnecessary slow boot loader, versus the boot time for Rockbox is much faster than the disk spinup, in fact it has to wait for the disk. Your boot time will be as quick as a disk spinup (e.g. 4 seconds from powerup until resuming playback). \subsection{Method} The replaced firmware will host a bootloader and 2 images. This is possible by compression. The first is the \emph{permanent} backup, not to be changed any more.The second is the default one to be started, the first is only used when you hold the \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFOne}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonLeft}\opt{player}{\ButtonLeft} -key during start. Like supplied here, the first image is the original Archos firmware, the second is empty, left for you to program and update. It can contain anything you like. If you prefer, you can program the Archos firmware to there, too. \note{For now, the binary contained in the brand new player flash package does contain rockbox built from current cvs in the second image slot. This is to lower the risk of flashing (at least one of the images will hopefully work) in case you don't program a second image yourself in the first step. Of course the second image can be replaced like with the other models.} There are two programming tools supplied: \begin{itemize} \item The first one is called \fname{firmware\_flash.rock} and is used to program the whole flash with a new content. You can also use it to revert back to the original firmware you've hopefully backup-ed. In the ideal case, you'll need this tool only once. You can view this as "formatting" the flash with the desired image structure. \item The second one is called \fname{rockbox\_flash.rock} and is used to reprogram only the second image. It won't touch any other byte, should be safe to fool around with. If the programmed firmware is inoperational, you can still use the \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFOne}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonLeft}\opt{player}{\ButtonLeft} start with the Archos firmware and Rockbox booted from disk to try better. \end{itemize} The non-user tools are in the \fname{flash} subdirectory of the cvs source files. There's an authoring tool which composed the firmware file with the bootloader and the 2 images. The bootloader project, a firmware extraction tool, the plugin sources, and the tools for the UART boot feature: a monitor program for the box and a PC tool to drive it. Feel free to review the sources for all of it, but be careful when fooling around with powerful toys! \subsection{Risks} Well, is it dangerous? Yes, certainly, like programming a mainboard \emph{BIOS}, \emph{CD/DVD} drive firmware, mobile phone, etc. If the power fails, your chip breaks while programming or most of all the programming software malfunctions, you'll have a dead box. We take no responsibility of any kind, you do that at your own risk. However, we tried as carefully as possible to bulletproof this code. The new firmware file is completely read before it starts programming, there are a lot of sanity checks. If any fails, it will not program. Before releasing this, we have checked the flow with exactly these files supplied here, starting from the original firmware in flash. It worked reliably, there's no reason why such low level code should behave different on your box. \opt{player}{ \warn{The risk is slightly higher for player flashing, because: \begin{itemize} \item This is brand new \item It could not be tested with all hardware versions. \end{itemize} Refer to this e-mail: \url{http://www.rockbox.org/mail/archive/rockbox-archive-2004-12/0245.shtml} } } There's one ultimate safety net to bring back boxes with even completely garbled flash content: the \emph{UART} boot mod, which in turn requires the serial mod. It can bring the dead back to life, with that it's possible to reflash independently from the outside, even if the flash is completely erased. It has been used that during development, else Rockbox in flash wouldn't have been possible. Extensive development effort went into the exploitation of the UART boot mod. Mechanically adept users with good soldering skills can easily perform these mods. Others may feel uncomfortable using the first tool (\fname{firmware\_flash.rock}) for reflashing the firmware. To comfort you a bit again: If you are starting with a known-good image, you are unlikely to experience problems. The flash tools have been stable for quite a while. Several users have used them extensively, even flashing while playing! Although it worked, it's not the recommended method. About the safety of operation: Since we have dual boot, you're not giving up the Archos firmware. It's still there when you hold \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFOne}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonLeft}\opt{player}{\ButtonLeft} during startup. So even if Rockbox from flash is not 100\% stable for everyone, you can still use the box, reflash the second image with an updated Rockbox copy, etc. The flash chip being used by Archos is specified for 100,000 cycles, so you don't need to worry about that wearing out. \subsection{Requirements} You need two things: \begin{itemize} \item The first is a \playername. Be sure you're using the correct package, they are different! \item Second, you need an in-circuit programmable flash. \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm,player}{The older chips are not flashable.}\opt{ondio}{This should always be flashable on Ondios, because Archos does itself provide flash updates for these.} You can find out via Rockbox (\setting{Info $\rightarrow$ Debug $\rightarrow$ Hardware Info}). If the flash info gives you question marks (Flash M=?? D=??), you're out of luck. The only chance then is to solder in the right chip (SST39VF020), at best with the firmware already in. If the chip is blank, you'll need the UART boot mod as well. \end{itemize} \subsection{Flashing procedure} Short explanation: copy the \fname{firmware\_*.bin} files for your model from the distribution to the root directory of your \dap, then run the \fname{firmware\_flash.rock} plugin. Long version, step by step procedure: \begin{enumerate} \item Completely install the Rockbox version you want to have in flash, from a full \fname{.zip} distribution, including all the plugins, etc. \item Back up the current firmware, using the first option of the debug menu (\setting{Info $\rightarrow$ Debug $\rightarrow$ Dump ROM Contents}). This creates 2 files in the root directory, which you may not immediately see in the Rockbox browser. The 256kB-sized \fname{internal\_rom\_2000000-203FFFF.bin} one is your present firmware. Back both up to your PC. You will need them if you want to restore the flash contents. \item Download the correct package for you model. Copy one or two files of it to your box: \fname{firmware\_*.bin} (name depends on your model) into the root directory (the initial firmware for your model, with the bootloader and the Archos image). There now is also a \_norom variant, copy both, the plugin will decide which one is required for your box. \item Enter the debug menu and select the hardware info screen. Check your flash IDs (bottom line), and please make a note about your \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm,ondio}{hardware mask value}\opt{player}{ROM version}. The latter is just for our curiosity, not needed for the flow. If the flash info shows question marks, you can stop here, sorry. \item Use the \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFTwo\ settings or }the menu (\setting{General settings $\rightarrow$ File view $\rightarrow$ Show files}) to configure seeing all files within the browser. \item Connect the charger and make sure your batteries are also in good shape. That's just for security reasons, it's not that flashing needs more power. \item Run the \fname{firmware\_flash.rock} plugin. It again tells you about your flash and the file it's gonna program. After \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFOne}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonLeft}\opt{player}{\ButtonLeft} it checks the file. Your hardware mask value will be kept, it won't overwrite it. Hitting \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFTwo}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonUp}\opt{player}{\ButtonOn} gives you a big warning. If we still didn't manage to scare you off, you can hit\opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFThree}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonRight}\opt{player}{\ButtonRight} to actually program and verify. The programming takes just a few seconds. If the sanity check fails, you have the wrong kind of boot ROM and are out of luck by now, sorry. \item In the unlikely event that the programming should give you any error, don't switch off the box! Otherwise you'll have seen it working for the last time. While Rockbox is still in DRAM and operational, we could upgrade the plugin via USB and try again. If you switch it off, it's gone. \end{enumerate} \nopt{player}{ Now the initial procedure is done. Since the second half of the flash is still empty, there is just'' the Archos image starting when you reboot now. Not much has changed yet. The Archos software starts a bit quicker than usual, then loads Rockbox from disk. The fun really starts when you add Rockbox to the flash, as described in the next section. } \note{You may delete the \fname{.bin} files now.} \subsection{Bringing in a Rockbox build} Short version: very easy, just play an \fname{.ucl} file like \fname{rockbox.ucl} from a release or build: \begin{itemize} \item Make sure you are running the same version that you are trying to flash: play the \fname{ajbrec.ajz} file. \item Enter the \fname{.rockbox} directory in the file browser (you might need to set the \setting{File View} option to \setting{All Files}). \item Play the \fname{rockbox.ucl} file (or \fname{rombox.ucl} if you want to flash ROMBox) \end{itemize} Long version: The second image is the working copy, the \fname{rockbox\_flash.rock} plugin from this package reprograms it. The plugins needs to be consistant with the Rockbox plugin API version, otherwise it will detect mismatch and won't run. It requires an exotic input, a UCL-compressed image, because that's the internal format. UCL is a nice open-source compression library. The decompression is very fast and less than a page of C-code. The efficiency is even better than Zip with maximum compression, reduces file size to about 58\% of the original size. For details on UCL, see \url{http://www.oberhumer.com/opensource/ucl/}. Rockbox developers using Linux will have to download it from there and compile it. For Win32 and Cygwin the executables are next to the packages. The sample program from that download is called \fname{uclpack}. We'll use that to compress \fname{rockbox.bin} which is the result of the compilation. This is a part of the build process meanwhile. If you compile Rockbox yourself, you should copy \fname{uclpack} to a directory which is in the path, we recommend placing it in the same dir as SH compiler. Here are the steps: \begin{enumerate} \item Normally, you'll simply download a \fname{.zip} distribution. Copy all the content to the USB drive, replacing the old. \item Force a disk boot by holding \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFOne}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonLeft}\opt{player}{\ButtonLeft} during power-up, or at least rolo into the new Rockbox version by \emph{Playing} the \fname{ajbrec.ajz}/fname{archos.mod} file. This may not always be necessary, but it's better to first run the version you're about to flash. It is required if you are currently running RomBox. \item Just \emph{play} the \fname{.ucl} file in the \fname{.rockbox} directory, this will kick off the \fname{rockbox\_flash.rock} plugin. It's a bit similar to the other one, but it's made different to make the user aware. It will check the file, available size, etc. With \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFTwo}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonUp}\opt{player}{\ButtonOn} it's being programmed. No need for warning this time. If it goes wrong, you'll still have the permanent image. \item When done, you can restart the box and hopefully your new Rockbox image. \end{enumerate} You may find two \fname{.ucl} files in the \fname{.rockbox} folder. The classical, compressed one is \fname{rockbox.ucl}. If your model has enough flash space left, there may be an additional \fname{rombox.ucl}, which is uncompressed and can run directly from flash ROM, saving some RAM. The second way is the newer and now preferred one. Use this if available. If you like or have to, you can also flash the Archos image as the second one. E.g. in case Rockbox from flash doesn't work for you. This way you keep the dual bootloader and you can easily try different later. The \fname{.ucl} of the Archos firmware is included in the package. \subsection{Restoring the original firmware} If you'd like to revert to the original firmware, you can do like you did when you flashed Rockbox for the first time. You simply use the backup files you saved when flashing Rockbox for the first time and rename \fname{internal\_rom\_2000000-203FFFF.bin} to \fname{firmware\_*.bin} (name varies per model, use the filename that \fname{firmware\_flash.rock} asks for) and put it in the root. \subsection{Known issues and limitations} Rockbox has a charging screen, but it is not 100\% perfect. You'll get it when the unit is off and you plug in the charger. The Rockbox charging algorithm is first measuring the battery voltage for about 40 seconds, after that it only starts charging when the capacity is below 85\%. \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{You can use the Archos charging (which always tops off) by holding \ButtonFOne\ while plugging in.}\opt{recorderv2fm}{Some FM users reported charging problems even with \ButtonFOne, they had to revert to the original flash content.} If the plugin API is changed, new builds may render the plugins incompatible. When updating, make sure you grab those too, and ROLO or \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFOne}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonLeft}\opt{player}{\ButtonLeft} boot into the new version before flashing it. There are two variants of how the boxes starts, therefore the normal and the \_norom firmware files. The vast majority of the \daps\ all have the same boot ROM content, differentiation comes later by flash content. Rockbox identifies this boot ROM with a CRC value of 0x222F in the hardware info screen. \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{Some recorders have the boot ROM disabled (it might be unprogrammed) and start directly from a flash mirror at address zero. They need the new \_norom firmware that has a slightly different bootloader.} Without a boot ROM there is no UART boot safety net. To compensate for that as much as possible the MiniMon monitor is included, it starts with \opt{recorder,recorderv2fm}{\ButtonFThree+\ButtonOn}\opt{ondio}{\ButtonRight+\ButtonMenu}\opt{player}{\ButtonRight+\ButtonOn}. Using that the box can be reprogrammed via serial if the first 2000 bytes of the flash are OK. \subsection{Download the new flash content file to your box} Jens Arnold hosts flash content for download. Use the following url: \opt{player}{\url{http://www.jens-arnold.net/Rockbox/flash\_player.zip}} \opt{recorder}{\url{http://www.jens-arnold.net/Rockbox/flash\_rec.zip}} \opt{recorderv2fm}{\url{http://www.jens-arnold.net/Rockbox/flash\_fm.zip}, \url{http://www.jens-arnold.net/Rockbox/flash\_v2.zip}} \opt{ondiofm}{\url{http://www.jens-arnold.net/Rockbox/flash\_ondiofm.zip}} \opt{ondiosp}{\url{http://www.jens-arnold.net/Rockbox/flash\_ondiosp.zip}}